Another effect of english is what is known as "throw". When a cue ball with sidespin hits the object ball, the spin is transferred to the object ball but in the opposite direction. For example, a cue ball is hit with right english so it spins to the right or counter-clockwise... upon hitting the object ball, an opposite spin (clockwise) is transferred to the object ball. The spin generated by the object ball causes it to be "thrown" to the direction opposite the spin on the cue ball. Whew! I think this calls for an illustration. See Figure 3.
Figure 3: Cue Ball Throw
So to make things simple, a cue ball with right english "throws" the object ball to the left while a cue ball with left english "throws" the object ball to the right. Let us examine the illustration above. In this illustration, the cue ball is hit with right english causing it to have a counter-clockwise spin. Upon contact with the object ball, a transfer of spin is generated causing an opposite (clockwise) spin on the object ball. This clockwise spin causes the object ball to be thrown to the left (indicated by the red line). Note that a fuller hit on the object ball is done allowing the "throw" effect to pocket the object ball. The white line indicates the normal path of the object ball if no english was done on the cue ball.
The amount throw generated is generally dependent the following:
Another effect of english is what is known as "Curve" or "Swerve". When a cue ball is hit low with a downward stroke using english, the cue ball tends to curve instead of moving in a straight line. This is a similar effect, though to a much lesser degree, to the masse shot. Figure 4 shows you what I mean. Notice that the cue stick is at a downward angle hitting the cue ball low. If you put english on this type of shot, an effect called "curve" will be the result.
Figure 4: Cue Ball Curve
The direction of the curve will be the same as the direction of the spin. That means that if you have a low right english on the cue ball, it will curve to the left and back to the right. If you have a low left english on the cue ball, it will curve to the right and then back to the left. See the illustration below; the red line indicates a curve generated when low right english is applied with a downward cue stick and the blue line indicates a curve generated when a low left english is applied with a downward cue stick.
Figure 5: Cue Ball Curve
The amount curve generated is generally dependent the following:
All these factors come into play at the same time so you should adjust your shot with consideration for all the above factors.
Now with all these effects: Deflection, Throw, and Curve... you will need to consider all these things when using english. Only with enough practice will you be able to learn instinctively how the cue ball will react to all these effects.
Video courtesy of Dr. Dave and The Illustrated Principles of Pool and Billiards at www.engr.colostate.edu/pool/
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